<County: Essex>
<Code: L6120>
<MS reference: Oxford, Bodleian Library, Add. A. 369>
<Text: Palladius on Husbandrie>

<Tranche 1>

<fol. 14v>3i3iphus to sette or graffe in May . 77. e .
In Juyn . 81 . G .
Consideraunce is taken~ atte prudence
What mon me . moost enfourme and husbondrie
No Rethorik doo teche or eloquence
As sum haue doon~ hemself to magnifie
What com therof . that wyse men folie
Her wordes helde yit othir thus to blame
We styntte / in cas men doo by vs the same
Vs is to write tillinge of euerie londe
With goddes grace / eke pasture and housyng
For husbondry / howe water shal be fonde
What is to rere or doon~ in euery thing
Plesaunce and fruyte the tilier to bring
As season wol his appultreen~ what houre
Js best to sette / is part of oure laboure
Jn thinges . iiij . / alle husbondrie mot stande
Jn water / aier / in lande and gouuernance
And iij . the first / as water / aier and lande
Beth natural . the . iiijth . is of plesaunce
And crafte of man~ but this consideraunce
Js first to seen / howe thyng is of nature
Jn places there thowe wilt haue thi culture
<fol. 15r>And first beholde aboute and se thin aire
Yf it be clere and hoole stande oute of fere
Thi water eke beholde yf it be faire
Hoolsum and light and eyther springing there
Or elles thider brought from elles-where
Or that it come of rayne / eke se thi lande
Be bering and commodiously stande
Good ayer is there as dales depe are noone
And mystes derk noo dayes maketh nyght
The contree men coloured wele ichone
Thaire wittes clere and vnoffended sight
Her voices faire her heringe pure and light
All this is preef of holsum aire and clene
And there as is contraier~ . is aire vnclene
The water oute of gayseyn or of myre <lat></lat>
Be it not brought / nor oute of metal synke
That it be fresshe coloured . first desire
Not poury but plesaunt and good to drinke
And smelle also therto / in cas it stynke
Yf it be coole in heete and luke in colde
The better may thowe with that water holde
Yit although thees in water faire appere
An hidde defaute is sumtyme in nature
Vnder couert and therof thus thowe lere
Yf contrey men in likyng hele endure
Her hedes goode her chekes also pure
And lite or noo compleynt inwith the brest
The longes hole and wynded with the best
<fol. 15v>The longe / woo / cometh ofte of yuel eire
The stomake eke of eire is ouertake
Take heede eke yf the duellers in that leire
Her wombes / sydes / reynes / swelle or ake
Yf langoure in thaire bledders ough awake
And yf thowe see the people sounde and faire
No doubte is in thi water nor thin aire
Fecunditee thowe see thus in thi lande
See not the swerd . all naked white vnclene <lat></lat>
All chalk or grauel groissyng in thi hande
Withouten moolde admixt nor sandy lene
Nor hongrie clay / nor stones ful iche rene
To ronke and weete . yolgh / bitter / salt ragstone
Valeyes herde and depe eke be ther~ noone
A roten~ swerd and welny blaake / it selue <lat></lat>
Suffysing wel with graas to ouerwrie
And tough to glue ayein though thowe it delue
The fruyte of it not scabby rosted drie
With walwort that goode lande wol signifie
With rysshes / reede / graas / trefoil / plummes wilde
And breres fatte also goo it with childe
Coloured stonde not on to besily
To se thi lande / but rather fatte and swete
To preve it fatte . a clodde auisely <lat></lat>
To take / and with gode water weel it wete
And loke if it be glewy tough to trete
Or make a dyche / and yf the moolde abounde
And wol not in agayne . it is fecounde
<fol. 16r>Yf it be lene . it goeth all in and more
Yf it be meene / it wol be with the brinke
But for to take it swete . a+taste alore <lat></lat>
The bitterest erthe and werst that thou canst thinke
An erthen~ potte thou take and yeue it drinke
Jn water swete / and therupponn thowe deme
For vynes lande to chees / eke must thou yeme
In coors and in colour~ solute and rare
The treen theron light fertile . faire and lange
As peres wilde . as plummes . bosshes are
Not croked / lene or seke but hole and strange
Ne pulle it not / but goodly plaine elonge
Ne picche it not to sore into the vale
Nor breke it not alle doune aboute a dale
Tempest yf it be hilly / must assaille
An euen feelde thou chese and in the mene
Thater by the cleef awaie trauaille
Or hille or dale in mesure thou demene
But se thin eyre be faire and lande vnlene
An higher hille the wynde that / wolde offende
Must holde of / but yf woddes the defende
The landes fatte or lene or thicke or rare
Or drie or moiste and not withoutenn vice
For dyvers seede yit thay right nedeful are
But chese the fatte and moyste is myne avyse
Ther~ werk is leest and fruyt is moost of price
And after it / the thicke and ronke is best
But thikke and drie espie ; and graunt it rest
<fol. 16v>Ayer water lande considered in nature
Nowe se the crafte the crafte is gouuernaunce
Nowe euery worde and sentence hath greet cure
The lord present his feelde may best auaunce
The lande is goode . the colour~ nought perchaunce
Therfore in hewe doo thou noo diligence
For god by his plesaunce alle will dispence
Jche graffe and grayne is goode but after preef
Thou sowe or graffe / and sedes newe eschewe
To sowe or sette and trust in thair~ bonchief
Oute of thaire kynde eke seedes wol renewe
And chaunge hem-self as writeth clercs trewe
Jn places weete / all rather then in drie
For vynes nowe apointe of husbondrie
Northwarde in places hote / . in places colde
Southwarde / and temporaunt in Est and West
Yit of tylling is dyvers reson~ holde
But thuse of thi province J holde it best
To fructifie / also this is honest
That yonger men~ obeye vnto thaire eldron
Jn gouuernynge as goode and buxom childron
To kytte a+vyne is thinges . iij . to attende
The vyne and fruyt and place in whom thai growe
Of erly kyttyng braunches fele ascende
Of late kyttyng cometh grapes right ynowe
From feble lande eke chaunge hem yf thou mowe
For man and tree from feble lande to goode <lat></lat>
Who can and wol not chaunge J holde him woode

<Tranche 2>

<fol. 58r>Of peres wyne is made if thai be grounde
And thorough a rare saak with fors ywronge
Yit somer wol it soure and so confounde
And wynter wol endure and kepe it longe
Of peres soure and wilde it is noo wronge
Aysell to bringe all ripe yf that thai be
Ytake and kepte vpheped daies three
Then in a+vessel se that thai be doo
And water with . of rayne or of the welle
Then hele it feire or se that it be soo
And . xxxti . daies ther~in lette hem dwelle
Nowe aisel take vnto thine vse or selle
But se what quantitee therof thou take
With water vp the summe ayeine thou make
And make liquamen castimoniall
Of peres thus . take peres right mature
And with hool salt and hem trede and flesshe all
When thai been resolute ; in stondes peres
Or erthenn pottes picched saue and sure
And after . iij . monethes . do hem suspende
And right goode licoure of hem wol descende
His taste is goode and whitisshe his coloure
For that when salt and it is doonn yfere
A blakkisshe wyne commixt it dothe socoure
¶ And in the moones of Marche and Feueryere
The meles graffed beth . but there as clere
Js aier and hoote and drie . it may be doo
In Octobr~ and Nouembr~ also .
<fol. 58v>Her kyndes forto write J wol not waste
Fatte lande thai love and moiste in nature
Jn cley or in grauel men mostenn haaste
To watter hem ofte . in hilles is to cure
To sette hem on the southe if thai shall vre
Thai growe also in places colde if the aier~
Be sumdel warme and helping to thair~ laier~
Also thai growe in places hardde and wete
And wormy wol thai be in drie and lene
And hem to graffe as peres me may trete
The plough or spade aboute hem be not sene
Forthi the bette in medes may thai bene
And dounge alle though thai noonn or litel crave
Yit gladly wol thai take and gladly haue
And namely askes medled ther~with alle
Thai loueth eke to dwell in regionn
There as the heet is neith~r greet ne small
Eke thai be apte vnto putaconn
Of bowes drie or foule elaconn
This tree is olde anoonn and in his age
He goothe oute of his kynde into dotage
Caduce if that the fruyte be cleef the roote
And putte in hit a stoone and it wol dwelle
For rotyng of the croppe the galle is boote
To touche hem with of neutes grene / eke quelle
Her wormes thus . take swynes dounge and melle
Jt with vryne of man . or oxes galle
And meles wormes this wol sleen hem alle
<fol. 59r>Yf wormes feel vppon hem be withoute
A scrape of braas let scrape hem of therwith
And cleme vpponn the wounde oxe dounge aboute
And ouere-thicke yf that the fruytes beth
Plucke of the feble fruyte as reason seth
Hem to discharge / and juce eke then wol dresse
Jt into thayme that are of gentilnesse
Jn peretree / thorn . in plomme and apple tree
Jn serve & peche . in plane & popule
Jn wylous may this meles graffed be
But trie hem wel that shal be kept ouer yere
Let ley hem derk as wynde may not come nere
And do feire stree vppon thaire sleyke hem vnder
On hepes faire a litel space asonder
Thees heepes must me nowe and nowe devide
Yit beth ther~ dyvers folk sayenn dyvers wyse
And oonn in piched pottes wol hem hyde
An-other hath of cley and othr~ gyse
Yit hath the thridde of hem a fresshe devyse
Oonly the litel feet to cleme in cley
And on a floor with chaf bystrowed ley
And therupponn thai cover hem with stre
The meles rounde ycalde orbiculer
Withouten care a yere may keped be
And other drenche hem in the water clere
Of cisterne or of wynche yclosed nere
In erthen pottes picched atte the fulle
And other ; meles wol with handes pulle
<fol. 59v>And dippe her litel feet in picche alle warme
And so in order ley hem on a table
And nuttre leves vnder wol not harme
Eke populer or fir is profitable
To make and ley amonge hem scobes able
And let her petifeet dounwarde be wende
And touche hem not vntil thai shal be spende
Aisel and wyne of meles me may make
As is aboue enfourmed of the pere
¶ To graffe a quynce ; is dyvers tyme ytake
Thaire planntes J haue sayen in ytail here
The Cite nygh ; ysette in Feueryere
Or of the frounte of Marche in dounged moolde
So that thai rooted were . and right wel holde
Holde haue thai so that in the yere secounde
Fruyte haue thai hadde if that me sette hem greet
Jn thende of Octobr~ thai wol abounde
Or sone in Nouembr~ yf that me trete
Hem into place of drynesse and of hete
But ther~ as drie it is . thay must be wette
Thai loue in colde and moist eke to be sette
Thai bere anoon~ in places temporate
And forth thai comme in cleves and in planys
Thai loue lande devexe and inclinate
Men graffeth of thaire toppes and thair~ tranys
That werk or seelde availle or sone yslayne is
And wide hem so that though the wynde hem shake
Noo droop of oon vntil an-other take
<fol. 60r>Yf thai be smale sette ; helpe hem with donge
Yf thai be greet askes and shalkes do to
Atte ones serue hem thus in alle yere longe
Eterne humour~ wol greet hem . and also
Hit wol hem ripe sone . and yf thaire no
Reyne be ; me muste hem wete and vmbydelue ;
This doonn . let god therwith alone him-selue
Atte Marche or Feueryere in landes colde
Atte Octobr~ & Novembr~ in hete
But thai be doluenn aboute as thai wolde
Other me shal of hem noo fruytes gete
Or oute of kynde . also this J you hete
Y-preued haue . y-kitte if that thai be
Thai wol beenn oute of vice in libertee
Thi tree is seek oildregges watermynge
Yliche of either . helde it to the roote
Or let quyk lyme with chalk resoluyng synge
Or reseyne mixt with taar that is so soote
Ennointe aboute of this for this doothe boothe
Or make the rootes bare and ley aroute
Of quynces to . to go the roote aboute
Do this from yere to yere and thai be saf
For vice . Eke ther~ ayeine thai nyl not dure
In Feueryere this quynces is to graffe
The rynde as in the stok is not so sure
Hem into graffe and graffyng to assure
Jn hem of euerie fruyte . punyk and serve
And appletreenn eke best for hem thai serve

<Tranche 3>

<fol. 114r>An-other wise is this / take sestres two
Of Quince and oon sester aisel
And half . Eke two sester hony therto
This mynge / and boile it alle togeder wel
Til it be hony fatte & thicke iche dele
Of pepur and ginger tweyne vnces grounde
To pouder smal ; is therto fo-rto infounde
A galon Muste from vnder feet . do to <lat></lat>
A strike floure of newe wheete / and it let drie
In sonne . and weete it est & drie it do
Yit efte the same . In smallest loves plie
And drie it harde in sonne . In pottes trie
Nowe gipse it fast . and vse this ferment
For musty brede . whom this wol condyment
The reison greek in this maner thai make <lat></lat>
Thai se where hongeth grapes goode & swete
The stortes softe in handes wol thai take
And writhe hem / and so writhenn wol thai lete
Hem honge and drie a+while in sonnes hete
And after hem in shadowe thai suspende
Her vessel while in dightyng thai contende
The leef of vyne all drie and chillyng colde
Vnder thai do and therin grapes presse
And with thaire handes fast a doon hem folde
So fille it vppe and therto leves dresse
In drie and colde ther~ smoke is noon expresse
Hem kepeth thai . This Octobr~ vpbornn
With feet is as in Marche is saide befornn
<fol. 114v><lat></lat>
The first & last houre . xxv . evenn
And next the first and last houre is . xv .
The thridde houre from the first and last . xj .
Hath . And the fourthe ; our viij is to sustene
Next noone on either side on vj . demene
And noone himself stont short on footes v .
And whi ? for phebus so short made him thrive
Octobr~ spende O sonne O light superne
O tryne and oonn . lovyng . honoure empire
Withouten ende vnto thi might eterne
That shyne and goon aspire
Magre thi foonn . so list iche houre and gire
His spere aright that sauyng
Sterre is ther noone in alle oure emyspire
Vnder whoos sight J gynne on Novembr~
Novembre wol with whete & far be sowe
Jn lawful wise and with solempnitee
V . strike vpon oon acre is to strowe
With barly wol this moone eke sowenn be
And benes vnto greet felicitee
Right fatte or dounged lande thai loueth best
Or valey ther~ hilles fattenesse hath rest
<fol. 115r>And clodde hem large . as+wel thai may be wrie
Eke summen sayenn . the benes satioun
Jn places colde is best to fructifie
On hem if me do noon occaconn
For cloddes wol thaire germinaconn
Obumbre from the colde and wel defende
Thay peireth lande but lite & nought amende
For Columelle affermeth that a felde
For whete is rather proved profitable
That bare is . thenne the felde ther~ benes yeld
Hath been / and for an ancre fatte is hable
Sex strike to sowe . and lesse is aboundable
Jn mene lande . but sadde lande wol the bene
Jn dwelle . and hateth nebulose and lene
And whenne the moone is dayes olde . xv .
And so not repercusse as of the sonne
Sowe hem . but othr~ sayen bette is . xiiij .
From weedes thai with capoun bloode beronne
Beth saue as grekes sayenn that ther~ on konne
Two dayes stept ; anoonn thai wol aryse
Nowe lyne and puls is sowe as is the gise
Nowe Mede is first to make as saide is erst <lat></lat>
Nowe vynes sette in places hoote and drie
Nowe also to provyne is not the werst
Yonge vyne and plauntes vmbydeluyng hie
And also hem that naked beth let wrie
Eke er then Jde iche merges curuature
Of . iij . yere olde . kytte from the roote ; is sure
<fol. 115v><lat></lat>
From henfforth the vynes that ferre traile
On perches or forkes and over-longe
An encombraunce are . and of nought availe
Beholde hem if thaire truncke be hool & stronge
Ablaqueate hem feede hem fatte with dounge
And kitte hem shortte over the lond not v .
Feet longe allyng . and thus make hem to thrive
There as the grenest places is of the rynde
Thi sharppest yren take and with the pointe
On either side . afore also behinde
So goodly by and by it is to pointe
ForColumelle affermeth in that iointe
To germyne . and in veer ther~oute to stare
Mater . thi vyne alle newely to repare
Putacioun autunnal celebrate
Js nowe in vyne & tree ther~ nys noo colde
Olyve is pulde of coloure variate
Make oil of hem al blake on to beholde
Olyve and othr~ treenn thus best is holde
The croppe to kitte / and saue on euery side
The bowes profluent for fruyte to abyde
But where is lande vnkept & insolent
Take from the truncke al clene vntil so hie
As beestes may by noonn experiment
Attayne . and there let bowes multiplie
And afterlonge on euery side hem plie
Salutyng . Est & West & North & South
Yit alway warre the touche of beestes mouth
<fol. 116r><lat></lat>
The Olyve is nowe there lande is hoote & drie
Ysette as erst is saide wel wol this tree
Encre in litel moiste and places hie
Wel froted wolde he fatte ydounged be
And wagged with wynde of feracitee
And cure hem as beforne Nowe baskettes corbes fyne
Beth made . Jn tempre lande eke oil lauryne
This moone vlpike and garlic is to sowe .
White erthe it wol dolven withouten dounge <lat></lat>
Mak reedes in the borde and ther~ bestowe
Hem in the toppe . atwene in brede & longe
Fyngers but iiij . Eke deepe sette is their~ wronge
And weede hem wel . so wol thai wex fele
But forto hede hem greet ; trede downe the stele
So shal the Juce into thaire hedes goo
And whenne the moone is downe also thai telle
Hem if me sowe . and pulle hem vppe also
Of crueltee noo thing wol in hem smelle
Jn chaf or smoke ykept wel wol tha dwelle
Nowe Onyons sowe . and tasul in his place
Let plaunte . and Cunel sowe eke Armarace
Nowe ther~ is hoote . and elles in Janyveer
The peches boon in pastyne is to sette
To sounder hem two footes best it weer
The plauntes spronge into other places fette
And sette hem deepe . iij . or . ij . handes mette
But picche adowne the pointe . intort the grounde
An other crafte yit other folk haue