Dette er studietilbudet for studieår 2018-2019. Endringer kan komme.

This course will examine concepts, theories, pedagogy supporting the use of simulation in education and practice, and research in simulation. The candidate will explore the value of simulation in various settings, within and across professions, and recognize the possibilities and limitations, compared to other methods. As candidates progress through the course, they will be able to assess their own learning needs regarding simulation, plan and design, and conduct a simulation-based program.

Learning outcome

After completing the master's course, the candidate is expected to have advanced:

  • about concepts, theories and research in simulation
  • about the various ways of applying simulation in higher education and professional practice, including digital platforms and interprofessional simulation
  • on how simulation enables the transfer of competence from education to professional practice
  • about the role of simulation to develop, improve and monitor the delivery of service, quality in systems and organizations, outcomes and safety
  • about using simulation and its utility across contexts on a global scale

  • to analyze and apply theories and educational principles in simulation-based learning
  • to design and conduct simulation-based sessions, including evaluation
  • to facilitate simulation-based sessions

General competence
  • to critically analyze theory and research related to simulation
  • to critically evaluate the ethical, educational and practical related aspects of simulation
  • to discuss and disseminate knowledge of simulation


The content of the course includes concepts, theories, methodology, research, learning methods, simulation modalities and translation, in professional practice. The course covers the following main areas:

- concepts and definitions

- theories in simulation-based learning

- pedagogy and educational principles in simulation-based learning; integrating simulation into the curriculum, designing and developing scenarios, facilitating simulation

- simulation modalities; e.g. task trainers, manikin-based, standardized/simulated patients, computer-based, virtual reality, and hybrid (the use of two or more simulation modalities in the same simulation activity)

- digital simulation platforms; e.g. remote controlled/remote facilitated simulations

- digital tools for simulation; e.g. scoring software, advanced manikins, digital scenario tools

- design and methodology in simulation research

- assessment by simulation and evaluation of simulation programs

- translation from simulation to practice

- simulation related research in:

- Healthcare education; nursing education, medical education, paramedic education, interprofessional education

- Healthcare practice; primary care, pre-hospital care, in hospital care (maternity care, resuscitation, pediatric care, emergency care), transitions between hospital and municipal services and in low-resource settings

- Patient safety

- Engineering education and practice

- Teacher education and practice

Required prerequisite knowledge



Weight Duration Marks Aid
Individual written assignment1/14 hoursA - F
Based on a relevant situation from a self-chosen context, the candidate will write an individual assignment to design a simulation. The assignment must consist of an analysis of the relevant situation from a self-chosen context and a plan for the simulation

Coursework requirements

Oral presentation

Select and orally present a scientific paper reporting on a study on simulation from a self-chosen context, focusing on the following:

- a description of the method and simulation used in the research project reported

- a critical review of the results and conclusion of the study.

This task must be approved before the exam at the end of the semester.

Subject teacher(s)

Course coordinator
Sissel Iren Eikeland Husebø, Helge Lorentzen
Study Program Director
Margareth Kristoffersen

Method of work

Teaching will be organised in three units. Each unit consists of 2-3 days, where the teaching and learning style is interactive and reflective, using presentations, simulations and dialogue/discussions, and group work drawing on both the teachers' expertise and the experience of the students.

Open to

The course is open for all qualified applicants

Course assessment

The subject will be evaluated in accordance with the rules and regulations in the Faculty of Health Sciences.


Certain adjustments in literature/curriculum can be made. Any adjustments will be published on Canvas in the beginning of the semester.

Books and book chapters:

Bearman, M. and D. Nestel (2014). Learning theories and simulated patient methodology. Simulated Patient Methodology: Theory, Evidence and Practice. D. Nestel and M. Bearman. Malden, MA, USA, Wiley Blackwell: 33-38. (pp. 6)

Dieckmann, P. (2009). Using simulations for education, training and research. Lengerich, Pabst. (pp. 130)

Dieckmann, P. and C. Ringsted (2013). Pedagogy in simulation-based training in healthcare. Essential Simulation in Clinical Education. K. Forrest, J. McKimm and S. Edgar. Hoboken, Wiley: 43-58. (pp. 16)

Nestel, D., et al. (2017). Healthcare simulation education: evidence, theory & practice, John Wiley & Sons Inc. (pp. 220)


Abrandt Dahlgren, M., et al. (2016). "Theorising simulation in higher education: difficulty for learners as an emergent phenomenon." Teaching in Higher Education 21(6): 613-627. (pp. 15)

Adamson, K. A., et al. "An Updated Review of Published Simulation Evaluation Instruments." Clinical Simulation in Nursing 9(9): e393-e400. (pp. 8)

Battista, A. (2015). "Activity Theory and Analyzing Learning in Simulations." Simulation & Gaming 46(2): 187-196. (pp. 10)

Bjørshol, C. A., et al. (2011). "Effect of socioemotional stress on the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during advanced life support in a randomized manikin study." Critical Care Medicine 39(2): 300-304. (pp. 5)

Clapper, T. C. (2015). "Cooperative-Based Learning and the Zone of Proximal Development." Simulation & Gaming 46(2): 148-158. (pp. 11)

Codita, A. M. (2016). "Integrating an Immigration Law Simulation Into EAP Courses: Instructors' and Students' Perceptions." Simulation & Gaming 47(5): 684-700. (pp. 17)

Dieckmann, P., et al. (2017). "Variation and adaptation: learning from success in patient safety-oriented simulation training." Advances in Simulation 2(1): 21. (pp. 14)

Egenberg, S., Masenga, G., Bru, L. E., Eggebø, T. M., Mushi, C., Massay, D., & Øian, P. (2017). Impact of multi-professional, scenario-based training on postpartum hemorrhage in Tanzania: a quasi-experimental, pre- vs. post-intervention study. BMC Pregnancy And Childbirth, 17(1), 287. doi:10.1186/s12884-017-1478-2

Eppich, W. and A. Cheng (2015). "How Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Can Inform Interprofessional Team Debriefings." Clinical Simulation in Nursing 11(8): 383-389. (pp. 7)

Ersdal, H. L., et al. (2013). "A one-day "Helping Babies Breathe" course improves simulated performance but not clinical management of neonates." Resuscitation 84(10): 1422-1427. (pp. 6)

Escher, C., Rystedt, H., Creutzfeldt, J., Meurling, L., Nystrom, S., Dahlberg, J., . . . Abrandt-Dahlgren, M. (2017). Method matters: impact of in-scenario instruction on simulation-based teamwork training. Adv Simul (Lond), 2, 25. doi:10.1186/s41077-017-0059-9

Evans, A. J., et al. (2016). "The Great EU Debt Write-Off: A Classroom Simulation." Simulation & Gaming 47(4): 543-556. (pp. 14)

Franciosi, S. J. (2016). "Acceptability of RPG Simulators for Foreign Language Training in Japanese Higher Education." Simulation & Gaming 47(1): 31-50. (pp. 20)

Glavin, R. J. (2016). "Lessons for simulation-based education from social psychology." Advances in Simulation 1(1): 7. (pp. 6)

Husebø, S. E., Friberg, F., Søreide, E., & Rystedt, H. (2012). Instructional Problems in Briefings: How to Prepare Nursing Students for Simulation-Based Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 8(7), e307-318. doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2010.12.002

Husebø, S. E., et al. (2015). "Reflective Practice and Its Role in Simulation." Clinical Simulation in Nursing 11(8): 368-375. (pp. 7)

Ikeyama, T., Shimizu, N., & Ohta, K. (2012). Low-cost and ready-to-go remote-facilitated simulation-based learning. Simulation In Healthcare: Journal Of The Society For Simulation In Healthcare, 7(1), 35-39. doi:10.1097/SIH.0b013e31822eacae

Kardong-Edgren, S., et al. "A Review of Currently Published Evaluation Instruments for Human Patient Simulation." Clinical Simulation in Nursing 6(1): e25-e35. (pp. 11)

Kelly, M. A. and P. Hager (2015). "Informal Learning: Relevance and Application to Health Care Simulation." Clinical Simulation in Nursing 11(8): 376-382. (7)

Kihlgren, P., et al. (2015). "Investigating novice doctor' reflections in debriefings after simulation scenarios." Medical Teacher 37(5): 437-443. (pp. 7)

Kriz, W. C. and E. Auchter (2016). "10 Years of Evaluation Research into Gaming Simulation for German Entrepreneurship and a New Study on Its Long-Term Effects." Simulation & Gaming 47(2): 179-205. (pp. 27)

McCall, J. (2016). "Teaching History With Digital Historical Games: An Introduction to the Field and Best Practices." Simulation & Gaming 47(4): 517-542. (pp. 26)

Mduma, E., et al. (2015). "Frequent brief on-site simulation training and reduction in 24-h neonatal mortality--an educational intervention study." Resuscitation 93: 1-7. (pp. 7)

Olsen, Ø. E., Husebø, S. E., Qvindesland, S. A., & Lorentzen, H. (2015). Redefining clinical leadership for team-course development. Journal of Hospital Administration, 4(5), 52-60. doi:http://dx.doi.org10.5430/jha.v4n5p52

Piu, A., et al. (2016). "Geometry Classrooms with Simulation/Games. Research Results and Future Developments." Simulation & Gaming 47(6): 796-817. (pp. 22)

Qvindesland, S. A., Björshol, C. A., Aase, I., Rossavik, B., & Kluge, M. (2015). Creating the interprofessional health team of the future. [Å skape fremtidens tverrprofesjonelle helseteam]. Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening, 135(23-24), 2138.

Ravik, M., et al. (2014). "Exploring nursing students' transfer of peripheral venous cannulation from skills centre to the clinical setting." Journal of Nursing Education and Practice 5(3): 59-70. (pp. 12)

Ravik, M., et al. (2017). "Defining and comparing learning actions in two simulation modalities: Students training on a latex arm and each other's arms." Journal of Clinical Nursing. DOI: 10.1111/jocn.13748 (pp. 11)

Rooney, D., et al. (2015). "The Role of Simulation in Pedagogies of Higher Education for the Health Professions: Through a Practice-Based Lens." Vocations and Learning 8(3): 269-285. (pp. 17)

Rudolph, J. W., et al. (2014). "Establishing a safe container for learning in simulation: the role of the presimulation briefing." Simul Healthc 9(6): 339-349. (pp. 5)

Rudolph, J. W., et al. (2008). "Debriefing as formative assessment: closing performance gaps in medical education." Acad Emerg Med 15(11): 1010-1016. (pp. 6)

Sahakian, G. D., et al. (2015). "Setting Conditions for Productive Debriefing." Simulation & Gaming 46(2): 197-208. (pp. 12)

Shankar, R. K. (2016). "UDAN - Playing to Learn the Nuances of Entrepreneurship." Simulation & Gaming 47(6): 837-850. (pp. 14)

Sollid, S. J. M., et al. (2016). "Five Topics Health Care Simulation Can Address to Improve Patient Safety: Results From a Consensus Process." Journal of Patient Safety. DOI: 10.1097/pts.0000000000000254. (pp. 7)

Stocker, M., et al. (2014). "Optimisation of simulated team training through the application of learning theories: a debate for a conceptual framework." BMC Med Educ 14: 69. (pp. 8)

Søreide, E., et al. (2013). "The formula for survival in resuscitation." Resuscitation 84(11): 1487-1493. (pp. 7)

Theilen, U., et al. (2017). "Regular in-situ simulation training of paediatric Medical Emergency Team leads to sustained improvements in hospital response to deteriorating patients, improved outcomes in intensive care and financial savings." Resuscitation 115: 61-67. (pp. 7)

Wardaszko, M. (2016). "Building Simulation Game-Based Teaching Program for Secondary School Students." Simulation & Gaming 47(3): 287-303. (pp. 17)

Dette er studietilbudet for studieår 2018-2019. Endringer kan komme.

Sist oppdatert: 21.09.2018