This course focuses on the interaction of rocks with fluids at different scales, which can induce physical or chemical changes in the reservoir or caprock. These interactions can improve the movement of hydrocarbons, enhance water circulation in engineered geothermal systems, or stop the migration of sequestered greenhouse gases. On the other hand, compaction, leakages, fault reactivation and seismic events can be induced if fluid injection is done without the necessary assessments. Here, the physical and mechanical characteristics of rocks need to be discussed and measured at different scales using laboratory and field techniques. Changes posed by different fluids (water, CO2, etc.) on the porous media during and after injection should be highlighted, as well as precautions and remedial measures. Thus, apart from the fundamental concepts of geomechanics and enhanced production, the methodologies developed to increase the success and safety of fluid injection in subsurface geological sites will be presented in this course.
Course description for study year 2022-2023. Please note that changes may occur.
Determination of elastic and strength properties of rocks, fluid-rock interactions, variation of in-situ stress and likelihood of failure in different geological formations are an essential part of any reservoir management, production and IOR / EOR studies. In this course, we start everything by introducing the fundamental concepts of geomechanics (theories of elasticity/plasticity, failure mechanisms, and fluid flow in porous media) and show their applications to different areas of subsurface engineering. This will be followed by introducing the concept of hydraulic fractures, as one of the major enhanced production techniques in unconventional reservoirs and engineered geothermal systems, where fracture design improves hydrocarbon recovery and heat production from hot dry rocks in different subsurface conditions. Immiscible and low salinity water flooding as two important approaches of EOR which are linked to geothermal reservoirs and CO2 geo-sequestration technique will be covered in the next section where the concept behind the interaction of CO2 and brine with hydrocarbon-rock systems will be discussed in detail. The final part of the course gives in-depth insight into the mechanism of CO2 storage in different geological sites (depleted reservoirs, aquifers, and coal beds), where the interactions of CO2 with the rocks and subsequent challenges such as compaction, fault leakage and caprock integrity are discussed.
After taking the course, students should understand:
the importance of physical and chemical characteristics of rocks
the best methods to determine rock properties in laboratory and field scales
how hydraulic fractures can be designed and created
the role of fluid selection to enhance oil recovery
the concept of Carbon Capture and Storage in geological sites
After taking the course, students should be able to:
determine geomechanical parameters in laboratory or field scales
estimate in-situ and effective stresses during production or injection
design fractures to improve production from hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs
evaluate, design, and implement carbon storage in different geological sites
use software to analyse different reservoirs for production enhancement or storage
After taking the course, students should:
be comfortable in working in a multidisciplinary environment
be able to contribute into effective production and management of resources
be able to analyze, and report their strategy for carbon storage
be able to use industrial software to implement their strategies
Required prerequisite knowledge
Reports and written exam
Form of assessment
Written report 1
Written report 2
Individual home exam
All parts of the assessment must be passed in order to pass the course. There is no re-sit exam for the projects, and students who fail or want to improve their grade must retake these the next time the course is offered. Students who fail the home exam may take the re-sit exam the following semester.
4 hours lectures followed by 2 hours labs per week where students will go through the theoretical and practical aspects of reservoir storage and enhanced production. Interactive Petrophysics (IP) and CMG software will be used to complete the projects based on a set of real data from different fields in Norway. Group work.