Digitalization, Infrastructure and Vulnerability (SAM500)

The subject is obligatory for students at the masters degree programs in Societal Safety. The subject introduces important societal functions, to which critical infrastructures are part of the societal functions. The subject emphasizes how and why the important societal functions and critical infrastructures are vulnerable, with a special focus on digitalization. 

Course description for study year 2022-2023


Course code




Credits (ECTS)


Semester tution start


Number of semesters


Exam semester


Language of instruction



The following topics are addressed: Digitalization, vulnerability of critical infrastructures, complex technological systems, ICT/cybersecurity, cyber-physical systems, societal safety, safety and security management, and regulation.

The subject will in particular address infrastructures such as ICT, power supply systems, and water and sewage systems. Other societal functions will also be discussed and used as examples in the lectures. 

Learning outcome

When the students have finished the course they shall have knowledge about important functions and infrastructures in society.  Furthermore, the students shall have basic knowledge of key concepts and theories about safety and security management, risk regulation, and how one can reduce vulnerabilites in critical infrastructures and societal functions. Students shall also acquire knowledge about digitalization of critical infrastructures and the subsequent consequences for safety and security management of critical societal functions, including knowledge of ICT/cyber safety and security, and cyber-physical systems.

Required prerequisite knowledge



Project report and written exam

Form of assessment Weight Duration Marks Aid
Project report 4/10 Letter grades All
Written exam 6/10 4 Hours Letter grades None permitted

The course has a continous assessment. All assessment parts must be passed to achieve a final grade. Evaluation in the subject consists of project work in a group and an individual written exam. The project assignment must be carried out as group work. The theme for the project assignment can be chosen freely, but must be rooted in the syllabus literature. Group-based project work must be submitted through a written report. Group supervision will be given outside ordinary teaching. Candidates who fail project work can retake the project the following year. The total grade is by letter.

Course teacher(s)

Course coordinator:

Ruth Østgaard Skotnes

Course teacher:

Albert Lunde

Head of Department:

Tore Markeset

Method of work

Lectures, seminars, and group work.

Overlapping courses

Course Reduction (SP)
Infrastructure and vulnerability (MTS230_1) 10

Open for

Students with well founded applications will be given access if there is availability.

Course assessment

Course evaluation takes place according to the Faculty's guidelines.


The syllabus can be found in Leganto