Digitalisation, Infrastructure and Vulnerability (SAM500)

The course is obligatory for students at the masters degree programs in Societal Safety. The course introduces critical societal functions, to which critical infrastructures are part of the societal functions. The course emphasizes how and why the critical societal functions and infrastructures are vulnerable, with a special focus on digitalization.

Course description for study year 2023-2024


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Semester tution start


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The following topics are addressed: Digitalization, vulnerability of critical societal functions and infrastructures, complex technological systems, ICT/cybersecurity, cyber-physical systems, societal safety, safety and security management, and risk regulation.

The course will in particular address critical infrastructures such as ICT, power supply systems, and water and sewage systems. Other critical societal functions and infrastructures will also be discussed and used as examples in the lectures.

Learning outcome

When the students have finished the course they shall have knowledge about critical functions and infrastructures in society. Furthermore, the students shall have basic knowledge of key concepts and theories about complex technological systems, safety and security management, risk regulation, and how one can reduce vulnerabilites in critical societal functions and infrastructures. Students shall also acquire knowledge about digitalization of critical infrastructures and the subsequent consequences for safety and security management of critical societal functions, including knowledge of ICT/cyber safety and security, and cyber-physical systems.

Required prerequisite knowledge



Project report and written exam

Form of assessment Weight Duration Marks Aid
Project report 4/10 Letter grades All
Written exam 6/10 4 Hours Letter grades None permitted

Evaluation in the course consists of project work and a written school exam. The project assignment has to be delivered as a written essay. Candidates who fail project work can retake the project the following year. The total grade is by letter.

Course teacher(s)

Course coordinator:

Ruth Østgaard Skotnes

Course teacher:

Albert Lunde

Head of Department:

Tore Markeset

Method of work

Lectures, seminars, and group work.

Overlapping courses

Course Reduction (SP)
Infrastructure and vulnerability (MTS230_1) 10

Open for

Students with well founded applications will be given access if there is availability.

Course assessment

There must be an early dialogue between the course supervisor, the student union representative and the students. The purpose is feedback from the students for changes and adjustments in the course for the current semester.In addition, a digital subject evaluation must be carried out at least every three years. Its purpose is to gather the students experiences with the course.


The syllabus can be found in Leganto