My research interests are in designing and testing new and/or more environmentally-friendly chemicals for the oil and gas industry. I also recently wrote a book called ?Production Chemicals for the Oil and Gas Industry? which was published by CRC Press in 2009. It has about 2600 references.
My main research interest is in designing, synthesising and testing new low dosage gas hydrate inhibitors (LDHIs) and understanding the mechanisms of both these and LDHIs already commercialised. LDHIs are a fairly new technology for preventing gas hydrate plugging of oil and gas pipelines, both offshore and in colder climates, but their application can lead to multi-million dollar savings compared to using traditional methods such as using thermodynamic inhibitors (methanol, glycols etc.). We are designing and investigating two classes of LDHIs called kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs) and anti-agglomerants (AAs). KHIs are water-soluble polymers that delay gas hydrate nucleation and crystal growth, whereas AAs are surfactants that allow gas hydrates to form but prevent them from plugging pipelines by converting them to a transportable slurry in a liquid hydrocarbon phase.
Some types of LDHI are already in commercial use but there are demands in some sectors, such as offshore Norway, for more environmentally-friendly inhibitors as well as products which are cheaper, more compatible or have higher performance. We have recently patented a potentially cheaper and more biodegradable class of KHI, which has been performance tested in a joint industry project in 2007-2009 and is to be developed further by a chemical supplier. We carry out in-house OECD306 biodegradation tests. We also have collaborations with chemical suppliers to develop new classes of AAs. A joint industry project on Improved AAs is starting in early 2010. We also do consultancy work on gas hydrate control, particularly testing LDHIs.
Another area of research is synthesising and testing new and more environmentally-friendly scale inhibitors. Prevention of scales such as calcium carbonate and barium sulphate are commonly done with aminophosphonates and polymers with carboxylate, phosphonate/phosphinate or sulphonate groups. Few of these scale inhibitors are biodegradable. We have identified a new class of biodegradable scale inhibitor, which is currently under investigation.
We also have smaller projects on asphaltene, wax and corrosion inhibition, and defoamers.
- History of the Development of Low Dosage Hydrate Inhibitors, M.A. Kelland, Energy & Fuels, 2006, 20, 825.
- Class Of Kinetic Hydrate Inhibitor With Good Biodegradability, L. Del Villano, R. Kommedal and M.A. Kelland, Energy & Fuels, 2008, 22(5), 3143.
- A Feasibility Study For The Use Of Kinetic Hydrate Inhibitors In Deep Water Drilling Fluids, Malcolm A. Kelland, K. Mønig, J.E. Iversen and K. Lekvam, Energy & Fuels, 2008, 22, 2405.
- Gas Hydrate Anti-Agglomerant Properties of Polypropoxylates and Some Other Demulsifiers, M.A. Kelland, T.M. Svartaas, L. Dybvik Andersen, J. Petr. Sci. Eng., 2009, 64, 1.
- Tetrahydrofuran Hydrate Crystal Growth Inhibition By Hyperbranched Poly(Ester Amide) Kinetic Hydrate Inhibitors ? Evidence That Polymer Adsorption Onto Hydrate Crystals Is Not The Primary Mechanism For Gas Hydrate Inhibition By This Polymer Class, M.A. Kelland and L. Del Villano, Chem. Eng. Sci., 2009, 64, 3197.
- A Study of the Kinetic Hydrate Inhibitor Performance and Seawater Biodegradability of a Series of Poly(alkyloxazoline)s, L. Del Villano, R. Kommedal, R. Hoogenboom, M.W.M. Fijten and M.A. Kelland, Energy & Fuels, 2009, 23, 3665.
- Production Chemicals for the Oil and Gas Industry, M.A. Kelland, CRC Press (Taylor & Francis Group), Boca Raton, Florida, June 2009.
- Kinetic Hydrate Inhibition At Pressures Up To 750 Bar In Deep Water Drilling Fluids, M.A. Kelland and J.E. Iversen, Energy & Fuels, 2010, 24(5), 3003.